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VOLUME 6 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Prevalence of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit in Fast Bowlers and Its Correlation with Bowling Speed

Suresh Perumal

Keywords : Bowling speed, Fast bowling, Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, Injuries, Shoulder

Citation Information : Perumal S. Prevalence of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit in Fast Bowlers and Its Correlation with Bowling Speed. 2024; 6 (1):17-19.

DOI: 10.5005/jojs-10079-1125

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 12-01-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Background: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is a common musculoskeletal disorder seen in overhead athletes due to repetitive overhead activity at extreme ranges of motion. This causes capsuloligamentous and muscular microtrauma, leading to anterior capsule overstretching along with the posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) and posterior capsular contracture. This is a performance adaptation to achieve greater ball speeds. Cricket fast bowling also involves a high workload of repetitive shoulder activity to propel the ball at faster speeds. Despite adequate literature on other overhead and throwing sports, there is a lack of literature on the prevalence of GIRD in fast bowling. Objectives: The present study aims to estimate GIRD prevalence in Indian cricketers and investigate its relationship with bowling speed. Materials and methods: Shoulder range of motion was assessed for 22 top-division-level male cricket bowlers in their dominant and nondominant sides, and the GIRD was estimated. Bowling speed was measured with a radar gun. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the relationship between shoulder range of movement and bowling speed. Results: None of the bowlers in this study fit the diagnostic criteria for GIRD. The average loss of internal rotation was 5.68 ± 4.44°. Loss of internal rotation (IR) and bowling speed showed no correlation (coefficient 0.1671, p-value 0.45). Conclusion: The sampled fast bowlers did not show features of GIRD, and there was no correlation with bowling speed. This could be explained by the large difference in the biomechanics of bowling compared to throwing and that bowling speed is also determined by various other factors such as run-up velocity, lower body kinetics, kinematics, etc. Clinical significance: This information is valuable to sports medicine doctors and coaches, providing a better understanding of shoulder biomechanics in fast bowlers and its relationship with bowling speed.

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